National Science Foundation

SNAC Resources

What is cyberinfrastructure?
The term cyberinfrastructure was coined to describe the integration of a full range of cybertools -- high-performance computers and networks, collaboration tools, data acquisition, management, and analysis services, visualization environments, etc. The challenge of cyberinfrastructure is to integrate disparate resources to provide a useful, usable framework to enable research and discovery.

How is social network analysis relevant to cyberinfrastructure?
The development and deployment of cyberinfrastructure often involves teams of people collaborating across the country. It involves the cooperation of experts in high-end computing and information technology as well as researchers from specific disciplines. Insights from social network analysis have the potential to inform the development of cyberinfrastructure and to enable networks within distributed communities of scientists, educators, and practitioners.

How is cyberinfrastructure relevant to social network analysis?
Cyberinfrastructure has the potential to help the community of social network researchers address grand challenges in their discipline by advancing analysis, modeling, visualization, research, collaboration, practice, and education.

More information
Participants may find these links to information on cyberinfrastructure and social networks helpful.


Cyberinfrastructure Publications and Reports:
A number of reports have been prepared by various federal agenciesdiscussing the role of advanced computing and information technologies in science, engineering, the arts, humanities, and social sciences.

Cyberinfrastructure Projects:

  • Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid: network connecting individuals and institutions to enable the sharing of data and tools, creating a World Wide Web of cancer research.
  • CLEANER: Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research
  • Commission on Cyberinfrastructure for the Humanities & Social Sciences: national commission to investigate and report on the relations between cyberinfrastructure and social sciences.
  • Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Incorporated: Non-profit organization bringing together scholars in hydrologic science.
  • Cooperative Opportunity for NCEP Data Using IDD Technology (CONDUIT): a cooperative project with the National Weather Service's Office of Meteorology and Office of Systems Operations (OS), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and UCAR's Unidata Program Center to make model data available from the NCEP and OSO FTP servers to the university and U.S. Weather Research Program communities using Unidata Internet Data Distribution (IDD) technologies.
  • Cyberinfrastructure for the Social Sciences, 2005: NSF workshop to identify areas in which computer scientists and social scientists can partner together to begin to address the most fundamental and strategic problems for cyberinfrastructure.
  • Cyberinfrastructure Partnership: a joint effort led by NCSA and the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to help scientists and engineers take full advantage of the high-end cyberinfrastructure resources funded by the National Science Foundation.
  • DataGrid: EU-funded project whose objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases, from hundreds of terabytes to petabytes, across widely distributed scientific communities.
  • DataTAG: objective is to create a large-scale intercontinental grid testbed involving the European DataGrid project, several national projects in Europe, and related grid projects in the United States.
  • Digital Library for Earth System Education: a distributed community effort involving educators, students, and scientists working together to improve the quality, quantity, and efficiency of teaching and learning about the Earth system at all levels.
  • Earth Science Data and Information System: an organization that contributes to and complements the services provided by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. ESDIS develops, implementsm, and operates the data and information system called EOSDIS, a software whose purpose is to acquire, archive, manage, and distribute Earth observation data to a diverse group of users.
  • EarthScope: aims to apply modern observational, analytical and telecommunications technologies to investigate the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  • Earth System Grid: integrates supercomputers with large-scale data and analysis servers at numerous national labs and research centers to create a powerful environment for next-generation climate research.
  • Earth System Modeling Framework: is aimed to building high-performance, flexible software infrastructure to increase ease of use, performance portability, interoperability, and reuse in climate, numerical weather prediction, data assimilation, and other earth science applications.
  • Forum for Geosciences Information Technology (PDF): will serve as a focal point for national dialog on cyberinfrastructure in the geosciences with particular emphasis on the linking of IT systems and the sharing of knowledge and resources.
  • Geographic Data in Education: dedicated to the improvement of Earth and environmental science education through the use of data visualization and analysis tools to support inquiry-based pedagogy.
  • Geosciences Network (GEON): aims to advance the field of geoinformatics to prepare and train current and future generations of geoscience researchers, educators, and practitioners in the use of cyberinfrastructure to further their research, education, and professional goals.
  • Global Change Master Directory: Portal for Earth science data and services.
  • Globus Alliance: international collaboration that conducts research and development to create fundamental Grid technologies.
  • Grid Physics Network: is developing grid technologies for scientific and engineering projects that must collect and analyze distributed, petabyte-scale datasets.
  • InfoVis Cyberinfrastructure: This website provides access to a comprehensive set of software packages that facilitate the exploration, modification, comparison, and extension of data mining and information visualization algorithms.
  • Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery: NSF Large Information Technology Research project that is creating an integrated, scalable cyberinfrastructure for mesoscale meteorology research and education.
  • Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System: dedicated to making value-added data available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) for the purpose of improving weather forecasting, by providing support for data assimilation, numerical weather prediction, and other hydrometeorological applications.
  • National Virtual Observatory: its objective is to enable new science by enhancing access to data and computing resources. NVO makes it easy to locate, retrieve, and analyze data from archives and catalogs worldwide.
  • National Virtual Ocean Data System: a framework for the distribution and analysis of oceanographic (and other) data from researchers and other data providers to intermediate and end users, including other researchers, government and commercial managers and planners, educators, students at all levels, and the general public.
  • NEESGrid: software links earthquake researchers across the United States with leading-edge computing resources and research equipment, allowing collaborative teams (including remote participants) to plan, perform, and publish their experiments.
  • NOAA Operational Model Archive and Distribution System: a pilot project designed to provide real-time and retrospective format independent access to climate and weather model input and output data.
  • North Carolina BioGrid: established to research and implement new grid computing technologies that will enable researchers and educators throughout North Carolina to take full advantage of the genomic revolution.
  • Southern California Earthquake Center: Cybercommunity with the mission to gather new information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate this information into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives.
  • TeraGrid: the world's largest, most comprehensive distributed cyberinfrastructure for open scientific research.
  • Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services: is developing middleware to bridge the gap between data providers and data users. The goal is to simplify the discovery and use of scientific data and to allow scientific publications and educational materials to reference scientific data.
  • U.K. e-Science Centre: Consortium of departments from the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow aimed to stimulate and sustain the development of e-Science in the U.K.
  • Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment: an electronic learning environment for introductory undergraduate geoscience courses that enables students to use contemporary visualization techniques to investigate geophysical phenomena and engage in scientific inquiry.


Social Network Analysis

Introduction to Social Network Analysis

Social Network Journals:

Social Network Analysis Software:

  • BLANCHE: multi-agent-based computational modeling environment to specify, simulate, and analyze the evolution and co-evolution of networks.
  • CONSTRUCT: a multi-agent model of group and organizational networks.
  • EGONET: a program for the collection and analysis of egocentric network data.
  • FATCAT: network analysis program that works with categorical who-to-whom matrices, in which you select a variable that describes nodes to determine the categories for rows and another one to determine the categories for columns.
  • IKNOW: (Inquiring Knowledge Networks on the Web), a Web-based e-solution created to help organizations, communities, or individual teams manage knowledge assets.
  • InFlow: software for mapping and measuring human networks of all types.
  • KRACKPLOT: Software for network visualization.
  • NEGOPY/MULTINET: One of the oldest network analysis programs, NEGOPY finds cliques, liaisons, and isolates in networks having up to 1,000 members and 20,000 links. It is used at over 100 universities and research centers around the world.
  • NetVis: a free open-source Web-based tool to analyze and visualize social networks using data from csv files, online surveys, and dispersed teams.
  • NETWORK PACKAGE: a collection of tools for the creation and manipulation of network data objects. Network objects allow for simplified storage of complex vertex, edge, and network attributes, and scale more efficiently for large networks than adjacency matrices. The network package is compatible with SNA PACKAGE, but the latter does not require it.
  • PAJEK: Package for large network analysis.
  • SIENA (Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis): for analyzing repeated (longitudinal, dynamic) social network data.
  • SNA PACKAGE: Collection of R routines for social network analysis. Utilities included range from hierarchical Bayesian modeling of informant accuracy to logistic network regression (with QAP and CUG tests). Quite a few low-level utilities for plotting and transforming networks are available as well, along with many of the usual centrality and distance measures.
  • StOCNET: open software system for the advanced statistical analysis of social networks.
  • UCINET: general program designed to facilitate the analysis of social network data.
  • Visone: long-term research project aimed at developing models and algorithms to integrate and advance the analysis and visualization of social networks. An important part of Visone is the design and implementation of a software tool intended for research and teaching in social network analysis, specifically designed to allow experts and novices alike to apply innovative and advanced visual methods with ease and accuracy.
  • Visual Thesaurus: a dictionary and thesaurus with an intuitive interface that encourages exploration and learning.

Research Centers:

  • Arizona State University, Laboratory of Organization Communication and Knowledge Studies: an interdisciplinary laboratory sponsored by the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication, the Department of Industrial Engineering, and the Department of Management at Arizona State University. The lab's purpose is to study communication processes related to the creation, transformation, management, and application of organizational knowledge, and to develop methods appropriate for studying these processes.
  • Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems: This center unites computer science and dynamic network analysis for the empirical study of complex socio-technical systems.
  • Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, Laboratorie d'Analyse Secondaire et des Méthods Appliquées á la Sociologie, contact Alain Degenne or Marie-Odile Lebeaux to learn more.
  • Columbia University. Contact Harrison White, Peter Bearman, or David Stark to learn more.
  • Cornell University, contact Michael Macy to learn more.
  • Harvard University, contact Peter Marsden to learn more.
  • Indiana University, the InfoVis Lab was founded in 2000 to provide an active and advanced research environment for conducting research in information visualization.
  • Simon Fraser University, School of Communication, contact Bill Richards or Andrew Seary to learn more.
  • University of Arizona, contact Ronald Breiger to learn more.
  • University of California, Santa Barbara, contact Noah Friedkin or Eugene Johnsen to learn more.
  • University of California, Irvine. Contact Carter Butts to learn more.
  • University of Groningen, Netherlands, Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology, contact Frans Stokman or Thomas Snijders to learn more.
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Science of Networks in Communities (SONIC) research group was founded in 2004 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications as part of its effort to enable networks in the next-generation cyberinfrastructure.
  • University of Ljubljana. Contact Vladimir Batagelj to learn more.
  • University of Melbourne, Social Networks Laboratory: concentrates on the analysis of social networks, and in particular the development of exponential random graph models for social networks (p* models).
  • University of Pittsburgh, contact Patrick Doreian to learn more.
  • University of Toronto, NetLab: a scholarly network, centered at the University of Toronto, studying computer networks, communication networks, and social networks.



National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Last updated January 24, 2006